This alphabetized list of resources offers a wide diversity of information that explores what is being done to combat disinformation as well as techniques to combat disinformation.
Anderson, J., and Lee, R. Vogels, E. 2021, Worries about life in 2025. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2021/02/18/worries-about-life-in-2025/
Baum, M., Lazer, D and Mele, N.2017 Combating Fake News: An Agenda for Research and Actionhttps://shorensteincenter.org/combating-fake-news-agenda-for-research
Begley, S. n.d., The Truth About Denial. Sharon Begley.com. http://www.sh.com/global-warming-deniers-a-well-funded-machine
Bellamy, J. 2020. Climate Change Disinformation and Polarization in Canadian Society. https://www.naadsn.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/20-dec-Bellamy-Disinformation.pdf
Benegal, S.D. and Scruggs, L. 2018. Correcting misinformation about climate change: the impact of partisanship in an experimental setting. Springer, May 2018, Climatic Change 148(3) DOI:10.1007/s10584-018-2192-4 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324505708_Correcting_misinformation_about_climate_change_the_impact_of_partisanship_in_an_experimental_setting
Born, K. 2017. “The Future of Truth: Can Philanthropy Help Mitigate Misinformation?”, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.
Budak, C., Agrawal,, D., Abbadi, A. 2011. Limiting the spread of misinformation in social networks. Proceedings of the 20th international conference on World wide web, March 2011, Pages 665 674 https://doi.org/10.1145/1963405.1963499 https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/1963405.1963499
Burgos, A.M., de Moraes Silva, E.C. 2020. The Fake News Impact on the Public Policy Cycle: A Systemic Analysis through Documentary Survey. https://publications.waset.org/10011266/the-fake-news-impact-on-the-public-policy-cycle-a-systemic-analysis-through-documentary-survey
Climate Reality. 2019. THE CLIMATE DENIAL MACHINE: HOW THE FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRY BLOCKS CLIMATE ACTION. https://www.climaterealityproject.org/blog/climate-denial-machine-how-fossil-fuel-industry-blocks-climate-action
COM library, n.d. https://libguides.com.edu/c.php?g=649902andp=4556539
Cook, J., Ellerton, P., and Kinkead, D. 2018, Deconstructing climate misinformation to identify reasoning errors, Published by IOP Publishing Ltd Environmental Research Letters, Volume 13, Number 2. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aaa49f
Cook,, J., Supran, G., Lewandowsky, S., Oreskes, N., Maibach, E. 2019 America Misled How the fossil fuel industry deliberately misled Americans about climate change.
Cook, J, 2019. Understanding and countering misinformation about climate change. George Mason University. https://www.climatechangecommunication.org/wpcontent/uploads/2019/06/Cook_2019_climate_misinformation-1.pdf
Del Vicario, M., Bessi, A., Zollo, F., Petroni, F., Scala, A., Caldarelli, G., Stanley, H.E. and Quattrociocchi, W. 2016. The spreading of misinformation online. PNAS January 19, 2016 113 (3) 554-559; first published January 4, 2016; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1517441113 https://www.pnas.org/content/113/3/554/
Demelle, B. n.d. THE CLIMATE DENIAL INDUSTRY. DeSmog. https://www.beforetheflood.com/explore/the-deniers/the-climate-denial-industry/
DeSmog, n.d. Global Warming Disinformation Database, https://www.desmogblog.com/global-warming-denier-database
European Commission. 2018 Final report of the High Level Expert Group on Fake News and Online Disinformation. https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/library/final-report-high-level-expert-group-fake-news-and-online-disinformation
Fernandez, M. and Alani, H. 2018. Online Misinformation: Challenges and Future Directions. In: WWW ’18 Companion: The 2018 Web Conference Companion, ACM, New York, pp. 595–602. http://oro.open.ac.uk/53734/1/sample-sigconf.pdf
Funke D. and Flamini D. 2021 A guide to anti-misinformation actions around the world. Poynter https://www.poynter.org/ifcn/anti-misinformation-actions/
Hanafizan, H. 2007. Conceptual Model for Knowledge Sharing Model in Creating Idea for Mobile Application, https://publications.waset.org/10010676/conceptual-model-for-knowledge-sharing-model-in-creating-idea-for-mobile-application
Harvey, J.A., van den Berg, D., Ellers, J., Kampen, R., Crowther, T.W., Roessingh, P., Verheggen, B., Nuijten, R.J.M., Post, E., Lewandowsky, S., Stirling, I., Balgopal, M., Amstrup, S.C., Mann., M.E. 2017. Internet Blogs, Polar Bears, and Climate-Change Denial by Proxy BioScience, Volume 68, Issue 4, April 2018, Pages 281–287, https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix133 Published: 29 November 2017 https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/68/4/281/4644513
Henley, J. 2020. Primary school pupils in Helsinki explain the difference between misinformation, disinformation and mal-information. Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/28/fact-from-fiction-finlands-new-lessons-in-combating-fake-news
Hess, D. J. and Collins, B.M. 2018,. Climate change and higher education: Assessing factors that affect curriculum requirements Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 170, 1 January 2018, Pages 1451-1458 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959652617322187
Idowu, S.O. et al, (editors). 2013. Encyclopedia of Corporate Social Responsibility. https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-642-28036-8_77#
Influence Map. n.d. https://influencemap.org/
Isaac, M., 2016. “Facebook Mounts Effort to Limit Tide of Fake News,” New York Times, December 15, 2016.
Kahne J. and Bowyer, B. 2017. “Educating for Democracy in a Partisan Age: Confronting the Challenges of Motivated Reasoning and Misinformation,” American Educational Research Journal, February, 2017.
Karlova N.A., and Fisher. K.E. 2013. A social diffusion model of misinformation and disinformation for understanding human information behaviour The Information School, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 http://informationr.net/ir/18-1/paper573.html
KennyBirch, R. 2019. research consultant at Lexington Communications. There is no vaccine for fake news, but media literacy can come close Apolitical https://apolitical.co/en/solution_article/how-finland-shuts-down-fake-news
Krugman, P 2018. Climate Denial Was the Crucible for Trumpism. New York Times. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/03/opinion/climate-denial-trumpgop.html
Levush, E. 2019,, Senior Foreign Law Specialist, September 2019 https://www.loc.gov/law/help/social-media-disinformation/compsum.php
Levin, S. 2017. Facebook promised to tackle fake news. But the evidence shows it’s not working. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/may/16/facebook-fake-news-tools-not-working
Lewandowsky, S., Stritzke, W. G., Freund, A. M., Oberauer, K., and Krueger, J. I. 2013. Misinformation, disinformation, and violent conflict: from Iraq and the “War on Terror” to future threats to peace. The American psychologist, 68(7), 487–501. doi:10.1037/a0034515
Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U. K. H., and Cook, J. 2017. Beyond Misinformation: Understanding and Coping with the “Post-Truth” Era. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 6(4), 353-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2017.07.008 10.1016/j.jarmac.2017.07.008https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/ws/portalfiles/portal/152516154/Pages_from_JARMAC_2017_59_Revision_1_V1.pdf
Liao, Z. 2016. “An Economic Analysis on Internet Regulation in China and Proposals to Policy and Law Makers,” International Journal of Technology Policy and Law, 2016.
Lonstein. W. 2020. Is There A Proven Method To Combat Disinformation?, Forbes Technology Council https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2020/04/10/is-there-a-proven-method-to-combat-disinformation/
MacKay, B., and Munro, I. 2012. Information Warfare and New Organizational Landscapes: An Inquiry into the ExxonMobil–Greenpeace Dispute over Climate Change. Organization Studies, 33(11), 1507–1536. doi:10.1177/0170840612463318
Mackintosh, E. 2019, Finland is winning the war on fake news. What it’s learned may be crucial to Western democracy https://edition.cnn.com/interactive/2019/05/europe/finland-fake-news-intl/
Marsden, C., Meyer, T., and Brown, I. 2020. Platform values and democratic elections: How can the law regulate digital disinformation. Computer Law and Security Review, 36. doi:10.1016/j.clsr.2019.105373
Martel, C. Mosleh, M., Rand, D. 2020. You’re definitely wrong, maybe: Correction style has minimal effect on corrections of misinformation online. https://psyarxiv.com/w3tfb
Meadowcroft, J. 2013. “Reaching the limits? Developed country engagement with sustainable development in a challenging conjuncture”, Environment and Planning C, 31(6): 988–1002.
Meyer, C. 2021. Climate denial mixing with other disinformation, January 5th 2021, Ottawa Insider https://www.nationalobserver.com/2021/01/05/news/climate-denial-other-disinformation-analysis
Moser, S.C., 2010 Communicating climate change: history, challenges, process and future directions https://climateaccess.org/system/files/Moser_Communicating%20Climate%20Change.pdf
Pennycook, G., and Rand, D. G. (2017). Assessing the Effect of “Disputed” Warnings and Source Salience on Perceptions of Fake News Accuracy. SSRN. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3035384
Rand Corporation. n.d. Tools That Fight Disinformation Online, https://www.rand.org/research/projects/truth-decay/fighting-disinformation/search.html
Saurwein, F., and Spencer-Smith, C. 2020. Combating Disinformation on Social Media: Multilevel Governance and Distributed Accountability in Europe, Digital Journalism, 8(6), 820-841. doi:10.1080/21670811.2020.1765401
Sepaha, P. Impact of Social Media on the Functioning of the Indian Government: A Critical Analysis. 2007 https://publications.waset.org/10010873/impact-of-social-media-on-the-functioning-of-the-indian-government-a-critical-analysisMcGeehan, T. P. (2018). Countering Russian Disinformation. Parameters, 48(1), 49-57. https://www.hsdl.org/
Shu, K, Bhattacharjee, A., Alatawi, F., Nazer, T. H., Ding, K., Karami, M., and Liu, H. (2020). Combating disinformation in a social media age. WIREs Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, 10(6). doi:10.1002/widm.1385
Strudwicke, I. J., and Grant, W. J. 2020. #JunkScience: Investigating pseudoscience disinformation in the Russian Internet Research Agency tweets. Public Understanding of Science, 29(5), 459–472. doi:10.1177/0963662520935071
Tacchini, E. Ballarin, G. Vedova, M.D., Moret, S. and de Alfaro, L. 2017. Some Like It Hoax: Automated Fake News Detection in Social Networks, Human-Computer Interaction.
Treen, K., Williams, H. O’Neill, S. 2020. How climate change misinformation spreads online. Carbon Brief. https://www.carbonbrief.org/guest-post-how-climate-change-misinformation-spreads-online
UCS – Union of Concerned Scientists. n.d., Climate Disinformation: Misleading information on global warming can usually be traced directly to special interests. https://www.ucsusa.org/climate/disinformation
UCS – Union of Concerned Scientists. 2015. The Climate Deception Dossiers Internal Fossil Fuel Industry Memos Reveal Decades of Corporate Disinformation, https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/climate-deception-dossiers
UNESCO. n.d., Journalism, ‘Fake News’ and Disinformation: A Handbook for Journalism Education and Training. https://en.unesco.org/fightfakenews
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2019). Combating Targeted Disinformation Campaigns. https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ia/ia_combatting-targeted-disinformation-campaigns.pdf
van der Linden, S., Leiserowitz, A., Rosenthal, S., Maibach E., Inoculating the Public against Misinformation about Climate Change First published: 23 January 2017 https://doi.org/10.1002/gch2.201600008
van Duyn, E. and Collier, J. 2017. Priming and Fake News: The Effect of Elite Discourse on Evaluations of News Media. APSA 2017 conference paper.
Vogels, E.A., Rainie, L., and Anderson, J.. 2020. Experts Predict More Digital Innovation by 2030 Aimed at Enhancing Democracy. Pew Research https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2020/06/30/tech-is-just-a-tool/
Walsh, D. 2020. Study: ‘Accuracy nudge’ could curtail COVID-19 misinformation online. https://mitsloan.mit.edu/ideas-made-to-matter/study-accuracy-nudge-could-curtail-covid-19-misinformation-online
Weedon, J., Nuland, W. and Stamos, A. 2017. “Information Operations,” Facebook, April 27, 2017.
West, D.M. 2017. How to combat fake news and disinformation, Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/research/how-to-combat-fake-news-and-disinformation/
Wheeler, T. 2017. Using ‘Public Interest Algorithms’ to Tackle the Problems Created by Social Media Algorithms, Brookings TechTank, November 1, 2017.
Yang Wang, W. 2017. Liar, Liar Pants on Fire, A New Benchmark Dataset for Fake News Detection”, Computation and Language, May, 2017.
Zimmer, Z. 2021. The Conversation, 6 tips to help you detect fake science news MARCH 16, 2021 https://phys.org/news/2021-03-fake-science-news.html